1. use a period to show the end of a sentence.
hockey is a popular sport in canada.
the federal government is based in ottawa.
2. use a period after certain abbreviations.
b.c. is the province located on the west coast.
dr. bethune was a canadian who worked in china.
the company is located at 888 bay st. in toronto.
it is 4: 00 p.m. in halifax right now.
question mark [? ]
use a question mark at the end of a sentence to show a direct question.
how many provinces are there in canada?
note: do not use a question mark for indirect questions.
the teacher asked the class a question. do not ask me why.
exclamation mark [! ]
use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence to show surprise or excitement.
we won the stanley cup!
the forest is on fire!
1. use a comma to show a pause in a sentence.
therefore, we should write a letter to the prime minister.
2. use a comma with quotation marks to show what someone has said directly.
"i can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow."
3. use commas for listing three or more different things.
ontario, quebec, and b.c. are the three biggest provinces.
4. use commas around relative clauses that add extra information to a sentence.
emily carr, who was born in 1871, was a great painter.
1. use an apostrophe to show ownership of something.
this is david's computer.
these are the player's things. (things that belong to the player)
note: for nouns in plural form, put the apostrophe at the end of the noun.
these are the players' things. (things that belong to the players)
2. use an apostrophe to show letters that have been left out of a word.
i don't know how to fix it.
quotation marks ["]
use quotation marks to show what someone has said directly.
the prime minister said, "we will win the election."
"i can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow."
colon [: ]
1. use a colon to introduce a list of things.
there are three positions in hockey: goalie, defence, and forward.
2. use a colon to introduce a long quotation.
the prime minister said: "we will fight. we will not give up. we will win the next election."
semicolon [; ]
1. use a semicolon to join related sentences together.
the festival is very popular; people from all over the world visit each year.
2. use a semicolon in lists that already have commas.
the three biggest cities in canada are toronto, ontario; montreal, quebec; and vancouver, b.c.
1. use a dash before a phrase that summarizes the idea of a sentence.
mild, wet, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in vancouver.
2. use a dash before and after a phrase or list that adds extra information in the middle of a sentence.
the children - pierre, laura, and ashley - went to the store.
most canadians - but not all - voted in the last election.
3. use a dash to show that someone has been interrupted when speaking.
the woman said, "i want to ask - " when the earthquake began to shake the room.
1. use a hyphen to join two words that form one idea together.
2. use a hyphen to join prefixes to words.
3. use a hyphen when writing compound numbers.
the story is set in paris in 1482 during the reign of louis xi. the gypsy esmeralda (born as agnes) captures the hearts of many men, including those of captain phoebus and pierre gringoire, but especially quasimodo and his guardian archdeacon claude frollo. frollo is torn between his obsessive lust for esmeralda and the rules of notre dame cathedral. he orders quasimodo to kidnap her, but quasimodo is captured by phoebus and his guards, who save esmeralda. gringoire, who attempted to help esmeralda but was knocked out by quasimodo, is about to be hanged by beggars when esmeralda saves him by agreeing to marry him for four years.
the following day, quasimodo is sentenced to be flogged and turned on the pillory for one hour, followed by another hour's public exposure. he calls for water. esmeralda, seeing his thirst, approaches the public stocks and offers him a drink of water. it saves him, and she captures his heart.
later, esmeralda is arrested and charged with the attempted murder of phoebus, whom frollo actually attempted to kill in jealousy after seeing him trying to seduce esmeralda. she is sentenced to death by hanging. as she is being led to the gallows, quasimodo swings down by the bell rope of notre-dame and carries her off to the cathedral under the law of sanctuary, temporarily protecting her from arrest.
frollo later informs gringoire that the court of parlement has voted to remove esmeralda's right to the sanctuary so she can no longer seek shelter in the cathedral and will be taken away to be killed. clopin, the leader of the gypsies, hears the news from gringoire and rallies the citizens of paris to charge the cathedral and rescue esmeralda.
when quasimodo sees the gypsies, he assumes they are there to hurt esmeralda, so he drives them off. likewise, he thinks the king's men want to rescue her, and tries to help them find her. she is rescued by frollo and gringoire. but after yet another failed attempt to win her love, frollo betrays esmeralda by handing her to the troops and watches while she is being hanged. when frollo laughs during esmeralda's hanging, quasimodo pushes him from the height of notre dame to his death. quasimodo goes to the cemetery, hugs esmeralda's body, and dies of starvation with her. years later they are discovered and, while trying to separate them, quasimodo's bones turn to dust.