Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular suicide program crucial for metazoan development. However, dysfunction of apoptosis also leads to several diseases. Yeast undergoes apoptosis after application of acetic acid, sugar- or salt-stress, plant antifungal peptides, or hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen radicals seem to be key elements of apoptotic execution, conserved during evolution. Furthermore, several yeast orthologues of central metazoan apoptotic regulators have been identified, such as a caspase and a caspase-regulating serine protease. In addition, physiological occurrence of cell death has been detected during aging and mating in yeast. The finding of apoptosis in yeast, other fungi and parasites is not only of great medical relevance but will also help to understand some of the still unknown molecular mechanisms at the core of apoptotic execution.
Cellular life includes all bacteria, archaea, and of course eukaryotes which include multicellular organisms like us. Some cells such as red blood cells may lose their DNA, but they are therefore not capable of replicating, but in a way you could consider these cells doomed and no longer truly alive.
It is called "aerobic respiration"
1. Soil Structure
Because of the organic matter present in organic fertilizer, soil structure is improved and as a result the soil’s ability to hold onto water and nutrients increases.
2. Microbes Thrive
Synthetic fertilizer consists of chemical molecules without carbon. These molecules can sometimes be disruptive and are not accessible to microbes. On the other hand, organic fertilizer is rich in organic matter, which helps microbes thrive. Organic fertilizer contains carbon as part of its chemical makeup; and it is the carbon, along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that feeds microbes and enables them to make nutrients available for plants in a naturally occurring biological process.
3. Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly
Synthetic fertilizers runoff into our waterways harming marine life and water quality. Organic fertilizers do not run off as easily (if at all) and are associated with soil structure. According to the Organic Trade Association, organic fertilizer also increases species biodiversity by 30% compared with synthetic fertilizer.
4. Reduce Fertilizers and Pesticides
Although organic fertilizer can be more costly than synthetic, it can reduce the need for pesticides and the overall nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium requirements. Because of the reductions, organic fertilizer can be cost neutral and sometimes a cost savings.
5. Plant Damage Threat Avoided
Some synthetic fertilizers can cause plant damage to leaves and roots. This is less likely with organic fertilizers.