The correct answer was given: Brain
“i can never too often repeat that aristocracy is a monster to be chained,” john adams cautioned benjamin rush, “yet so chained as not to be hurt, for he is a most useful and necessary animal in his place. nothing can be done without him.” since the republic’s earliest days, critics have accused adams of harboring aristocratic sympathies. in truth, he both feared aristocracy and recognized that fostering an aristocracy of the talented and virtuous—what we today call an elite—was essential for the good of the nation. some kind of elite, adams believed, was inevitable; the only question was whether it would be self-serving or public-spirited. two recent books—richard ryerson’s john adams’s republic: the one, the few, and the many and luke mayville’s john adams and the fear of american oligarchy—ably demonstrate this element of his thought.